How do I invoke a Java method when given the method name as a string?

If I have two variables:

Object obj;
String methodName = "getName";

Without knowing the class of obj, how can I call the method identified by methodName on it?

The method being called has no parameters, and a String return value. It's a getter for a Java bean.

Answers


Coding from the hip, it would be something like:

java.lang.reflect.Method method;
try {
  method = obj.getClass().getMethod(methodName, param1.class, param2.class, ..);
} catch (SecurityException e) { ... }
  catch (NoSuchMethodException e) { ... }

The parameters identify the very specific method you need (if there are several overloaded available, if the method has no arguments, only give methodName).

Then you invoke that method by calling

try {
  method.invoke(obj, arg1, arg2,...);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) { ... }
  catch (IllegalAccessException e) { ... }
  catch (InvocationTargetException e) { ... }

Again, leave out the arguments in .invoke, if you don't have any. But yeah. Read about Java Reflection


Use method invocation from reflection:

Class<?> c = Class.forName("class name");
Method method = c.getDeclaredMethod("method name", parameterTypes);
method.invoke(objectToInvokeOn, params);

Where:

  • "class name" is the name of the class
  • objectToInvokeOn is of type Object and is the object you want to invoke the method on
  • "method name" is the name of the method you want to call
  • parameterTypes is of type Class[] and declares the parameters the method takes
  • params is of type Object[] and declares the parameters to be passed to the method

For those who want a straight-forward code example in Java 7:

Dog class:

package com.mypackage.bean;

public class Dog {
    private String name;
    private int age;

    public Dog() {
        // empty constructor
    }

    public Dog(String name, int age) {
        this.name = name;
        this.age = age;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }

    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }

    public void printDog(String name, int age) {
        System.out.println(name + " is " + age + " year(s) old.");
    }
}

ReflectionDemo class:

package com.mypackage.demo;

import java.lang.reflect.*;

public class ReflectionDemo {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String dogClassName = "com.mypackage.bean.Dog";
        Class<?> dogClass = Class.forName(dogClassName); // convert string classname to class
        Object dog = dogClass.newInstance(); // invoke empty constructor

        String methodName = "";

        // with single parameter, return void
        methodName = "setName";
        Method setNameMethod = dog.getClass().getMethod(methodName, String.class);
        setNameMethod.invoke(dog, "Mishka"); // pass arg

        // without parameters, return string
        methodName = "getName";
        Method getNameMethod = dog.getClass().getMethod(methodName);
        String name = (String) getNameMethod.invoke(dog); // explicit cast

        // with multiple parameters
        methodName = "printDog";
        Class<?>[] paramTypes = {String.class, int.class};
        Method printDogMethod = dog.getClass().getMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
        printDogMethod.invoke(dog, name, 3); // pass args
    }
}

Output: Mishka is 3 year(s) old.


You can invoke the constructor with parameters this way:

Constructor<?> dogConstructor = dogClass.getConstructor(String.class, int.class);
Object dog = dogConstructor.newInstance("Hachiko", 10);

Alternatively, you can remove

String dogClassName = "com.mypackage.bean.Dog";
Class<?> dogClass = Class.forName(dogClassName);
Object dog = dogClass.newInstance();

and do

Dog dog = new Dog();

Method method = Dog.class.getMethod(methodName, ...);
method.invoke(dog, ...);

Suggested reading: Creating New Class Instances


The method can be invoked like this. There are also more possibilities (check the reflection api), but this is the simplest one:

import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;

import org.junit.Assert;
import org.junit.Test;

public class ReflectionTest {

    private String methodName = "length";
    private String valueObject = "Some object";

    @Test
    public void testGetMethod() throws SecurityException, NoSuchMethodException, IllegalArgumentException,
            IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException {
        Method m = valueObject.getClass().getMethod(methodName, new Class[] {});
        Object ret = m.invoke(valueObject, new Object[] {});
        Assert.assertEquals(11, ret);
    }



}

First, don't. Avoid this sort of code. It tends to be really bad code and insecure too (see section 6 of Secure Coding Guidelines for the Java Programming Language, version 2.0).

If you must do it, prefer java.beans to reflection. Beans wraps reflection allowing relatively safe and conventional access.


To complete my colleague's answers, You might want to pay close attention to:

  • static or instance calls (in one case, you do not need an instance of the class, in the other, you might need to rely on an existing default constructor that may or may not be there)
  • public or non-public method call (for the latter,you need to call setAccessible on the method within an doPrivileged block, other findbugs won't be happy)
  • encapsulating into one more manageable applicative exception if you want to throw back the numerous java system exceptions (hence the CCException in the code below)

Here is an old java1.4 code which takes into account those points:

/**
 * Allow for instance call, avoiding certain class circular dependencies. <br />
 * Calls even private method if java Security allows it.
 * @param aninstance instance on which method is invoked (if null, static call)
 * @param classname name of the class containing the method 
 * (can be null - ignored, actually - if instance if provided, must be provided if static call)
 * @param amethodname name of the method to invoke
 * @param parameterTypes array of Classes
 * @param parameters array of Object
 * @return resulting Object
 * @throws CCException if any problem
 */
public static Object reflectionCall(final Object aninstance, final String classname, final String amethodname, final Class[] parameterTypes, final Object[] parameters) throws CCException
{
    Object res;// = null;
    try {
        Class aclass;// = null;
        if(aninstance == null)
        {
            aclass = Class.forName(classname);
        }
        else
        {
            aclass = aninstance.getClass();
        }
        //Class[] parameterTypes = new Class[]{String[].class};
    final Method amethod = aclass.getDeclaredMethod(amethodname, parameterTypes);
        AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction() {
    public Object run() {
                amethod.setAccessible(true);
                return null; // nothing to return
            }
        });
        res = amethod.invoke(aninstance, parameters);
    } catch (final ClassNotFoundException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+CLASS, e);
    } catch (final SecurityException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_SECURITY_ISSUE, e);
    } catch (final NoSuchMethodException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_NOT_FOUND, e);
    } catch (final IllegalArgumentException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_ILLEGAL_ARGUMENTS+String.valueOf(parameters)+GenericConstants.CLOSING_ROUND_BRACKET, e);
    } catch (final IllegalAccessException e) {
        throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_ACCESS_RESTRICTION, e);
    } catch (final InvocationTargetException e) {
    throw new CCException.Error(PROBLEM_TO_ACCESS+classname+GenericConstants.HASH_DIESE+ amethodname + METHOD_INVOCATION_ISSUE, e);
    } 
    return res;
}

//Step1 - Using string funClass to convert to class
String funClass = "package.myclass";
Class c = Class.forName(funClass);

//Step2 - instantiate an object of the class abov
Object o = c.newInstance();
//Prepare array of the arguments that your function accepts, lets say only one string here
Class[] paramTypes = new Class[1];
paramTypes[0]=String.class;
String methodName = "mymethod";
//Instantiate an object of type method that returns you method name
 Method m = c.getDeclaredMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
//invoke method with actual params
m.invoke(o, "testparam");

Object obj;

Method method = obj.getClass().getMethod("methodName", null);

method.invoke(obj, null);

If you do the call several times you can use the new method handles introduced in Java 7. Here we go for your method returning a String:

Object obj = new Point( 100, 200 );
String methodName = "toString";  
Class<String> resultType = String.class;

MethodType mt = MethodType.methodType( resultType );
MethodHandle methodHandle = MethodHandles.lookup().findVirtual( obj.getClass(), methodName, mt );
String result = resultType.cast( methodHandle.invoke( obj ) );

System.out.println( result );  // java.awt.Point[x=100,y=200]

This sounds like something that is doable with the Java Reflection package.

http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/ALT/Reflection/index.html

Particularly under Invoking Methods by Name:

import java.lang.reflect.*;

public class method2 {
  public int add(int a, int b)
  {
     return a + b;
  }

  public static void main(String args[])
  {
     try {
       Class cls = Class.forName("method2");
       Class partypes[] = new Class[2];
        partypes[0] = Integer.TYPE;
        partypes[1] = Integer.TYPE;
        Method meth = cls.getMethod(
          "add", partypes);
        method2 methobj = new method2();
        Object arglist[] = new Object[2];
        arglist[0] = new Integer(37);
        arglist[1] = new Integer(47);
        Object retobj 
          = meth.invoke(methobj, arglist);
        Integer retval = (Integer)retobj;
        System.out.println(retval.intValue());
     }
     catch (Throwable e) {
        System.err.println(e);
     }
  }
}

I do this like this:

try {
    YourClass yourClass = new YourClass();
    Method method = YourClass.class.getMethod("yourMethodName", ParameterOfThisMethod.class);
    method.invoke(yourClass, parameter);
} catch (Exception e) {
    e.printStackTrace();
}

Please refer following code may help you.

public static Method method[];
public static MethodClass obj;
public static String testMethod="A";

public static void main(String args[]) 
{
    obj=new MethodClass();
    method=obj.getClass().getMethods();
    try
    {
        for(int i=0;i<method.length;i++)
        {
            String name=method[i].getName();
            if(name==testMethod)
            {   
                method[i].invoke(name,"Test Parameters of A");
            }
        }
    }
    catch(Exception ex)
    {
        System.out.println(ex.getMessage());
    }
}

Thanks....


Method method = someVariable.class.getMethod(SomeClass);
String status = (String) method.invoke(method);

SomeClass is the class and someVariable is a variable.


Student.java
class Student{
    int rollno;
    String name;

    void m1(int x,int y){
        System.out.println("add is" +(x+y));
    }

    private void m3(String name){
        this.name=name;
        System.out.println("danger yappa:"+name);
    }
    void m4(){
        System.out.println("This is m4");
    }
}
StudentTest.java
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
public class StudentTest{

     public static void main(String[] args){

        try{

            Class cls=Student.class;

            Student s=(Student)cls.newInstance();


            String x="kichha";
            Method mm3=cls.getDeclaredMethod("m3",String.class);
            mm3.setAccessible(true);
            mm3.invoke(s,x);

            Method mm1=cls.getDeclaredMethod("m1",int.class,int.class);
            mm1.invoke(s,10,20);

        }
        catch(Exception e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
     }
}

You should use reflection - init a class object, then a method in this class, and then invoke this method on an object with optional parameters. Remember to wrap the following snippet in try-catch block

Hope it helps!

Class<?> aClass = Class.forName(FULLY_QUALIFIED_CLASS_NAME);
Method method = aClass.getMethod(methodName, YOUR_PARAM_1.class, YOUR_PARAM_2.class);
method.invoke(OBJECT_TO_RUN_METHOD_ON, YOUR_PARAM_1, YOUR_PARAM_2);

This is working fine for me :

public class MethodInvokerClass {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException, IllegalAccessException, IllegalArgumentException, ClassNotFoundException, InvocationTargetException, InstantiationException {
        Class c = Class.forName(MethodInvokerClass.class.getName());
        Object o = c.newInstance();
        Class[] paramTypes = new Class[1];
        paramTypes[0]=String.class;
        String methodName = "countWord";
         Method m = c.getDeclaredMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
         m.invoke(o, "testparam");
}
public void countWord(String input){
    System.out.println("My input "+input);
}

}

Output:

My input testparam

I am able to invoke the method by passing its name to another method (like main).


using import java.lang.reflect.*;

public static Object launchProcess(String className, String methodName, Class<?>[] argsTypes, Object[] methodArgs)
        throws Exception {

    Class<?> processClass = Class.forName(className); // convert string classname to class
    Object process = processClass.newInstance(); // invoke empty constructor

    Method aMethod = process.getClass().getMethod(methodName,argsTypes);
    Object res = aMethod.invoke(process, methodArgs); // pass arg
    return(res);
}

and here is how you use it:

String className = "com.example.helloworld";
String methodName = "print";
Class<?>[] argsTypes = {String.class,  String.class};
Object[] methArgs = { "hello", "world" };   
launchProcess(className, methodName, argsTypes, methArgs);

Here are the READY TO USE METHODS:

To invoke a method, without Arguments:

public static void callMethodByName(Object object, String methodName) throws IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException, NoSuchMethodException {
    object.getClass().getDeclaredMethod(methodName).invoke(object);
}

To invoke a method, with Arguments:

    public static void callMethodByName(Object object, String methodName, int i, String s) throws IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException, NoSuchMethodException {
        object.getClass().getDeclaredMethod(methodName, int.class, String.class).invoke(object, i, s);
    }

Use the above methods as below:

package practice;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;

public class MethodInvoke {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ClassNotFoundException, NoSuchMethodException, SecurityException, IllegalAccessException, IllegalArgumentException, InvocationTargetException, IOException {
        String methodName1 = "methodA";
        String methodName2 = "methodB";
        MethodInvoke object = new MethodInvoke();
        callMethodByName(object, methodName1);
        callMethodByName(object, methodName2, 1, "Test");
    }

    public static void callMethodByName(Object object, String methodName) throws IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException, NoSuchMethodException {
        object.getClass().getDeclaredMethod(methodName).invoke(object);
    }

    public static void callMethodByName(Object object, String methodName, int i, String s) throws IllegalAccessException, InvocationTargetException, NoSuchMethodException {
        object.getClass().getDeclaredMethod(methodName, int.class, String.class).invoke(object, i, s);
    }

    void methodA() {
        System.out.println("Method A");
    }

    void methodB(int i, String s) {
        System.out.println("Method B: "+"\n\tParam1 - "+i+"\n\tParam 2 - "+s);
    }
}

Output:

Method A  
Method B:  
	Param1 - 1  
	Param 2 - Test

for me a pretty simple and fool proof way would be to simply make a method caller method like so:

public static object methodCaller(String methodName)
{
    if(methodName.equals("getName"))
        return className.getName();
}

then when you need to call the method simply put something like this

//calling a toString method is unnessary here, but i use it to have my programs to both rigid and self-explanitory 
System.out.println(methodCaller(methodName).toString()); 

Need Your Help

Jquery button click event not firing

javascript jquery html ajax

seems like a simple issue but the solutions to the other problem don't seem to work from me.

Why does inserting URLs in C and C++ code work?

c++ c url

Why does the following code compile? Which section of the language allows URLs to be added in C and C++ code?