How to use password_hash

Recently I have been trying to implement my own security on a log in script I stumbled upon on the internet. After struggling of trying to learn how to make my own script to generate a salt for each user, I stumbled upon password_hash.

From what I understand (based off of the reading on this page: http://php.net/manual/en/faq.passwords.php), salt is already generated in the row when you use password_hash. Is this true?

Another question I had was, wouldn't it be smart to have 2 salts? One directly in the file and one in the DB? That way, if someone compromises your salt in the DB, you still have the one directly in the file? I read on here that storing salts is never a smart idea, but it always confused me what people meant by that.

Answers


Using password_hash is the recommended way to store passwords. Don't separate them to DB and files.

Let's say we have the following input:

$password = $_POST['password'];

I don't validate the input just for the sake of understanding the concept.

You first hash the password by doing this:

$hashed_password = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT);

Then see the output:

var_dump($hashed_password);

As you can see it's hashed. (I assume you did those steps).

Now you store this hashed_password in your database, And then let's say when a user asks to log them in. You check the password input with this hash value in the database, by doing this:

// Query the database for username and password
// ...

if(password_verify($password, $hashed_password)) {
    // If the password inputs matched the hashed password in the database
    // Do something, you know... log them in.
} 

// Else, Redirect them back to the login page.

Official Reference


Yes you understood it correctly, the function password_hash() will generate a salt on its own, and includes it in the resulting hash-value. Storing the salt in the database is absolutely correct, it does its job even if known.

// Hash a new password for storing in the database.
// The function automatically generates a cryptographically safe salt.
$hashToStoreInDb = password_hash($_POST['password'], PASSWORD_DEFAULT);

// Check if the hash of the entered login password, matches the stored hash.
// The salt and the cost factor will be extracted from $existingHashFromDb.
$isPasswordCorrect = password_verify($_POST['password'], $existingHashFromDb);

The second salt you mentioned (the one stored in a file), is actually a pepper or a server side key. If you add it before hashing (like the salt), then you add a pepper. There is a better way though, you could first calculate the hash, and afterwards encrypt (two-way) the hash with a server-side key. This gives you the possibility to change the key when necessary.

In contrast to the salt, this key should be kept secret. People often mix it up and try to hide the salt, but it is better to let the salt do its job and add the secret with a key.


Yes, it's true. Why do you doubt the php faq on the function? :)

The result of running password_hash() has has four parts:

  1. the algorithm used
  2. parameters
  3. salt
  4. actual password hash

So as you can see, the hash is a part of it.

Sure, you could have an additional salt for an added layer of security, but I honestly think that's overkill in a regular php application. The default bcrypt algorithm is good, and the optional blowfish one is arguably even better.


Never use md5() for securing your password, even with salt, it is always dangerous!!

Make your password secured with latest hashing algorithms as below.

<?php

// Your original Password
$password = '121@121';

//PASSWORD_BCRYPT or PASSWORD_DEFAULT use any in the 2nd parameter
/*
PASSWORD_BCRYPT always results 60 characters long string.
PASSWORD_DEFAULT capacity is beyond 60 characters
*/
$password_encrypted = password_hash($password, PASSWORD_BCRYPT);

?>

For matching with database's encrypted password and user inputted password use the below function.

<?php 

if (password_verify($password_inputted_by_user, $password_encrypted)) {
    // Success!
    echo 'Password Matches';
}else {
    // Invalid credentials
    echo 'Password Mismatch';
}

?>

If you want to use your own salt, use your custom generated function for the same, just follow below, but I not recommend this as It is found deprecated in latest versions of PHP.

read this http://php.net/manual/en/function.password-hash.php before use below code.

<?php

$options = [
    'salt' => your_custom_function_for_salt(), 
    //write your own code to generate a suitable & secured salt
    'cost' => 12 // the default cost is 10
];

$hash = password_hash($your_password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT, $options);

?>

Hope these all helps!!


There is a distinct lack of discussion on backwards and forwards compatibility that is built in to PHP's password functions. Notably:

  1. Backwards Compatibility: The password functions are essentially a well-written wrapper around crypt(), and are inherently backwards-compatible with crypt()-format hashes, even if they use obsolete and/or insecure hash algorithms.
  2. Forwards Compatibilty: Inserting password_needs_rehash() and a bit of logic into your authentication workflow can keep you your hashes up to date with current and future algorithms with potentially zero future changes to the workflow. Note: Any string that does not match the specified algorithm will be flagged for needing a rehash, including non-crypt-compatible hashes.

Eg:

class FakeDB {
    public function __call($name, $args) {
        printf("%s::%s(%s)\n", __CLASS__, $name, json_encode($args));
        return $this;
    }
}

class MyAuth {
    protected $dbh;
    protected $fakeUsers = [
        // old crypt-md5 format
        1 => ['password' => '$1$AVbfJOzY$oIHHCHlD76Aw1xmjfTpm5.'],
        // old salted md5 format
        2 => ['password' => '3858f62230ac3c915f300c664312c63f', 'salt' => 'bar'],
        // current bcrypt format
        3 => ['password' => '$2y$10$3eUn9Rnf04DR.aj8R3WbHuBO9EdoceH9uKf6vMiD7tz766rMNOyTO']
    ];

    public function __construct($dbh) {
        $this->dbh = $dbh;
    }

    protected function getuser($id) {
        // just pretend these are coming from the DB
        return $this->fakeUsers[$id];
    }

    public function authUser($id, $password) {
        $userInfo = $this->getUser($id);

        // Do you have old, turbo-legacy, non-crypt hashes?
        if( strpos( $userInfo['password'], '$' ) !== 0 ) {
            printf("%s::legacy_hash\n", __METHOD__);
            $res = $userInfo['password'] === md5($password . $userInfo['salt']);
        } else {
            printf("%s::password_verify\n", __METHOD__);
            $res = password_verify($password, $userInfo['password']);
        }

        // once we've passed validation we can check if the hash needs updating.
        if( $res && password_needs_rehash($userInfo['password'], PASSWORD_DEFAULT) ) {
            printf("%s::rehash\n", __METHOD__);
            $stmt = $this->dbh->prepare('UPDATE users SET pass = ? WHERE user_id = ?');
            $stmt->execute([password_hash($password, PASSWORD_DEFAULT), $id]);
        }

        return $res;
    }
}

$auth = new MyAuth(new FakeDB());

for( $i=1; $i<=3; $i++) {
    var_dump($auth->authuser($i, 'foo'));
    echo PHP_EOL;
}

Output:

MyAuth::authUser::password_verify
MyAuth::authUser::rehash
FakeDB::prepare(["UPDATE users SET pass = ? WHERE user_id = ?"])
FakeDB::execute([["$2y$10$zNjPwqQX\/RxjHiwkeUEzwOpkucNw49yN4jjiRY70viZpAx5x69kv.",1]])
bool(true)

MyAuth::authUser::legacy_hash
MyAuth::authUser::rehash
FakeDB::prepare(["UPDATE users SET pass = ? WHERE user_id = ?"])
FakeDB::execute([["$2y$10$VRTu4pgIkGUvilTDRTXYeOQSEYqe2GjsPoWvDUeYdV2x\/\/StjZYHu",2]])
bool(true)

MyAuth::authUser::password_verify
bool(true)

As a final note, given that you can only re-hash a user's password on login you should consider "sunsetting" insecure legacy hashes to protect your users. By this I mean that after a certain grace period you remove all insecure [eg: bare MD5/SHA/otherwise weak] hashes and have your users rely on your application's password reset mechanisms.


Class Password full code:

Class Password {

    public function __construct() {}


    /**
     * Hash the password using the specified algorithm
     *
     * @param string $password The password to hash
     * @param int    $algo     The algorithm to use (Defined by PASSWORD_* constants)
     * @param array  $options  The options for the algorithm to use
     *
     * @return string|false The hashed password, or false on error.
     */
    function password_hash($password, $algo, array $options = array()) {
        if (!function_exists('crypt')) {
            trigger_error("Crypt must be loaded for password_hash to function", E_USER_WARNING);
            return null;
        }
        if (!is_string($password)) {
            trigger_error("password_hash(): Password must be a string", E_USER_WARNING);
            return null;
        }
        if (!is_int($algo)) {
            trigger_error("password_hash() expects parameter 2 to be long, " . gettype($algo) . " given", E_USER_WARNING);
            return null;
        }
        switch ($algo) {
            case PASSWORD_BCRYPT :
                // Note that this is a C constant, but not exposed to PHP, so we don't define it here.
                $cost = 10;
                if (isset($options['cost'])) {
                    $cost = $options['cost'];
                    if ($cost < 4 || $cost > 31) {
                        trigger_error(sprintf("password_hash(): Invalid bcrypt cost parameter specified: %d", $cost), E_USER_WARNING);
                        return null;
                    }
                }
                // The length of salt to generate
                $raw_salt_len = 16;
                // The length required in the final serialization
                $required_salt_len = 22;
                $hash_format = sprintf("$2y$%02d$", $cost);
                break;
            default :
                trigger_error(sprintf("password_hash(): Unknown password hashing algorithm: %s", $algo), E_USER_WARNING);
                return null;
        }
        if (isset($options['salt'])) {
            switch (gettype($options['salt'])) {
                case 'NULL' :
                case 'boolean' :
                case 'integer' :
                case 'double' :
                case 'string' :
                    $salt = (string)$options['salt'];
                    break;
                case 'object' :
                    if (method_exists($options['salt'], '__tostring')) {
                        $salt = (string)$options['salt'];
                        break;
                    }
                case 'array' :
                case 'resource' :
                default :
                    trigger_error('password_hash(): Non-string salt parameter supplied', E_USER_WARNING);
                    return null;
            }
            if (strlen($salt) < $required_salt_len) {
                trigger_error(sprintf("password_hash(): Provided salt is too short: %d expecting %d", strlen($salt), $required_salt_len), E_USER_WARNING);
                return null;
            } elseif (0 == preg_match('#^[a-zA-Z0-9./]+$#D', $salt)) {
                $salt = str_replace('+', '.', base64_encode($salt));
            }
        } else {
            $salt = str_replace('+', '.', base64_encode($this->generate_entropy($required_salt_len)));
        }
        $salt = substr($salt, 0, $required_salt_len);

        $hash = $hash_format . $salt;

        $ret = crypt($password, $hash);

        if (!is_string($ret) || strlen($ret) <= 13) {
            return false;
        }

        return $ret;
    }


    /**
     * Generates Entropy using the safest available method, falling back to less preferred methods depending on support
     *
     * @param int $bytes
     *
     * @return string Returns raw bytes
     */
    function generate_entropy($bytes){
        $buffer = '';
        $buffer_valid = false;
        if (function_exists('mcrypt_create_iv') && !defined('PHALANGER')) {
            $buffer = mcrypt_create_iv($bytes, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM);
            if ($buffer) {
                $buffer_valid = true;
            }
        }
        if (!$buffer_valid && function_exists('openssl_random_pseudo_bytes')) {
            $buffer = openssl_random_pseudo_bytes($bytes);
            if ($buffer) {
                $buffer_valid = true;
            }
        }
        if (!$buffer_valid && is_readable('/dev/urandom')) {
            $f = fopen('/dev/urandom', 'r');
            $read = strlen($buffer);
            while ($read < $bytes) {
                $buffer .= fread($f, $bytes - $read);
                $read = strlen($buffer);
            }
            fclose($f);
            if ($read >= $bytes) {
                $buffer_valid = true;
            }
        }
        if (!$buffer_valid || strlen($buffer) < $bytes) {
            $bl = strlen($buffer);
            for ($i = 0; $i < $bytes; $i++) {
                if ($i < $bl) {
                    $buffer[$i] = $buffer[$i] ^ chr(mt_rand(0, 255));
                } else {
                    $buffer .= chr(mt_rand(0, 255));
                }
            }
        }
        return $buffer;
    }

    /**
     * Get information about the password hash. Returns an array of the information
     * that was used to generate the password hash.
     *
     * array(
     *    'algo' => 1,
     *    'algoName' => 'bcrypt',
     *    'options' => array(
     *        'cost' => 10,
     *    ),
     * )
     *
     * @param string $hash The password hash to extract info from
     *
     * @return array The array of information about the hash.
     */
    function password_get_info($hash) {
        $return = array('algo' => 0, 'algoName' => 'unknown', 'options' => array(), );
        if (substr($hash, 0, 4) == '$2y$' && strlen($hash) == 60) {
            $return['algo'] = PASSWORD_BCRYPT;
            $return['algoName'] = 'bcrypt';
            list($cost) = sscanf($hash, "$2y$%d$");
            $return['options']['cost'] = $cost;
        }
        return $return;
    }

    /**
     * Determine if the password hash needs to be rehashed according to the options provided
     *
     * If the answer is true, after validating the password using password_verify, rehash it.
     *
     * @param string $hash    The hash to test
     * @param int    $algo    The algorithm used for new password hashes
     * @param array  $options The options array passed to password_hash
     *
     * @return boolean True if the password needs to be rehashed.
     */
    function password_needs_rehash($hash, $algo, array $options = array()) {
        $info = password_get_info($hash);
        if ($info['algo'] != $algo) {
            return true;
        }
        switch ($algo) {
            case PASSWORD_BCRYPT :
                $cost = isset($options['cost']) ? $options['cost'] : 10;
                if ($cost != $info['options']['cost']) {
                    return true;
                }
                break;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Verify a password against a hash using a timing attack resistant approach
     *
     * @param string $password The password to verify
     * @param string $hash     The hash to verify against
     *
     * @return boolean If the password matches the hash
     */
    public function password_verify($password, $hash) {
        if (!function_exists('crypt')) {
            trigger_error("Crypt must be loaded for password_verify to function", E_USER_WARNING);
            return false;
        }
        $ret = crypt($password, $hash);
        if (!is_string($ret) || strlen($ret) != strlen($hash) || strlen($ret) <= 13) {
            return false;
        }

        $status = 0;
        for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($ret); $i++) {
            $status |= (ord($ret[$i]) ^ ord($hash[$i]));
        }

        return $status === 0;
    }

}

I’ve built a function I use all the time for password validation and to create passwords, e.g. to store them in a MySQL database. It uses a randomly generated salt which is way more secure than using a static salt.

function secure_password($user_pwd, $multi) {

/*
    secure_password ( string $user_pwd, boolean/string $multi ) 

    *** Description: 
        This function verifies a password against a (database-) stored password's hash or
        returns $hash for a given password if $multi is set to either true or false

    *** Examples:
        // To check a password against its hash
        if(secure_password($user_password, $row['user_password'])) {
            login_function();
        } 
        // To create a password-hash
        $my_password = 'uber_sEcUrE_pass';
        $hash = secure_password($my_password, true);
        echo $hash;
*/

// Set options for encryption and build unique random hash
$crypt_options = ['cost' => 11, 'salt' => mcrypt_create_iv(22, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM)];
$hash = password_hash($user_pwd, PASSWORD_BCRYPT, $crypt_options);

// If $multi is not boolean check password and return validation state true/false
if($multi!==true && $multi!==false) {
    if (password_verify($user_pwd, $table_pwd = $multi)) {
        return true; // valid password
    } else {
        return false; // invalid password
    }
// If $multi is boolean return $hash
} else return $hash;

}

Need Your Help

How can I get the google username on Android?

android username

I've seen references to using the AccountManager like Accessing Google Account Id /username via Android but it seems like it's for grabbing the authtoken?

ImportError: Cannot import name X

python python-import importerror circular-dependency

I have four different files named: main, vector, entity and physics. I will not post all the code, just the imports, because I think that's where the error is. (If you want, I can post more)